Evolution, Melanin And Brain Power

 

Evolution, Melanin And Brain Power

by

R.E. Prindle

 

     There is a whole bunch of nonsense around on the topic of why some people have a lot of melanin and others have little.  Melanin is the chemical compound that makes for skin color.

     The most common argument is that melanin is somehow affected by heat producing more in the tropics and less in the temperate zones.  According to this argument Caucasians are Negroes who have lived in the North for a long time thus losing their melanin.  No attempt to offer a mechanism for the process is offered.

     The argument can then be used to say that mankind has evolved to a point some hundred fifty thousand years ago when Homo Sapiens severed connections with the Last Hominid Predecessor and no further.  A big bronx cheer for that notion.

     In fact evolution has been continuing unabated since the LHP.  Much of that evolution has been in the development of the capabilities of the brain.  Now, when some physical change to an organ takes place the matter for the change must come from the existing reservoir of matter.  It is impossible for new matter to be added to the reservoir to facilitate the change.

     Thus if some function is added to the brain then the matter to do so must come from somewhere else in the organism.  If one organ is increased or added then another must be diminished or eliminated.

     Now, if the continuing evolution takes place in one species of Homo Sapiens and not the others that must create a visible physical difference.  It has to be.

     I am going to suggest that the material for the evolution of the Caucasian brain was provided by the conversion of melanin to the changes in the Caucasian brain.  The use of the melanin left the Caucasian White or pale.  Thus without the evoltuion of the brain the Caucasian would still be Black while still standing at the intellectual capacity of the Black African.

     I don’t need to quote the views of James Watson but there you have it.

     Thus the thermometer has nothing to do with skin color but the surfeit or lack of melanin probably has something to do with IQ.

     I have said it before and I see no reason as yet to change my opinion,  Blacks and Caucasians are two different species of Homo Sapiens or well on the way to being so.

 

 

33 comments on “Evolution, Melanin And Brain Power

  1. When humans migrated North, the selective pressure for expression of melanin producing genes was removed. So the expression of those genes became useless resulting in lighter skin color.

    Where did you get the idea that “No attempt to offer a mechanism for the process is offered”?

  2. heard of vestigial organs? the appendix, tail muscle… could they be the ‘somewhere else in the organism to the brain’? Obviously you have not. And if you did what would happen to your nice views and theories? The only thing melanin would do to a Caucasian or any brain for that matter is make it darker. All the same it was really funny reading this. Quite sure the novel you are writing is a joke book.

  3. The nature of evolution is such that as the humans evolved any changes in one place had to be taken from another place. As the appendix is disappearing then the tissues, the cells, must be reappearing somewhere else.

    Keep working at it Anu you’ll get the hang of it.

    Please order a copy of my book. If it is a joke book I guarantee you’ll get some laughs. It’s only 14.95. What’s that to you? Come on, buy it.

    • In the year 2000, the best human geneticists from all over the planet came together with the Human Genome Project. They all unanimously agreed that there is no race or species subdivision of humans. All humans are Homo sapient sapient, all of one race and one species. Brain capacity in all humans is about the same, and all noticeable ethnicities in humans are the changes in tiny gene combinations, mostly due to selective and environmental pressures of regional disposition.

      The best part? Black and white children can be fraternal twins from the same parents. Like the Singerl twins, there are loads of cases.

      The second best part? Every human on the planet is more closely related than chimpanzee twins. They have more genetic variation in one generation than all of humankind in 50 generations.

      • K. I’ve heard of one word names but you’re the first one letter. Good disguise.

        ‘the best human geneticists came together…’ La di da. They all have politically sensitive jobs hence can be expected to laugh together on cue.

        Bruce Lahn of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, one of the best human genetists on the planet, was silenced for saying much as I say. So, experts! Whoo, whoo, aren’t you the gullible one.

        Just try logic K. Evolution exists and is on going (part of what Lahn was disciplined for saying). Now, for all human species to be identical they would have all had to have evolved from the Last Hominid Predecessor at the same time. Thus they would still be identical today. That didn’t happen. It also means that they would have identical intellectual capacities. But they don’t.

        One of the world’s most capable geneticists, one of the two men who discovered DNA, said they don’t. And he too was disciplined. Are you getting my drift? Do you seen how easy it is to get expelled from the ‘best geneticists’ club?

        That would lead one to believe that your ‘best human geneticists from all over the planet’ were hand picked to sing in chorus and given the tune to sing.

        Or, am I being cynical? Or are you easily led?

  4. sure, sure! if only evolution happened faster… would love to see where the tail reappears!
    always for a laugh, I will.
    nice day :)

  5. I think Caucasians have been genetically and selectively tampered with because albinism is abnormal in natural environments. Polar bears are white, but they still produce melanin, its in their skin, which is still black, brain (neuromelanin), reproductive organs, like most animals and life on earth. Melanin in the brain and body does more than just “make it darker”. Melanin on the inside as well as outside protects against DNA degradation, it enhances, speeds up the transmition of messages to the brain and body, which is as to why people of color have a tendency to have a higher and quicker level of motor skills and response, and melanin also protects the reproductive system, that is why you rarely ever see any Mexicans and other people of color visiting impotency centers.

  6. I’ve read through the comment and the article and I have to say that this form of reasoning is terrible at best.

    What you call evolution is in fact a reversal of evolution. What is identified as being civilized is no other then animistic in behavior. All thinks on this planet have color e.g. melanin and I’m not even going to run through the genetics dealing with DNA but pale skin tone does not fit in with this planet nature. Listen, and again I speak without using genetics, religion, etc … Creating weapons of mass destruction is not civilized or a statement of evolution. Stealing whole continents is not evolution, its evil or more so animistic. Civilized and evolution is the ability to co-exist with all inhabitants on the planet and thus majority of Europeans have failed to do as such.

    You cannot compare Africans, African Americans, etc to European theories of evolution because your views of evolution is reversed based on the historical ideology of the word. You cannot judge evolution based on your format of reading, writing, language, your history, failing medicine, and even worse, your math. You cannot judge evolution when you only speak one language while kids in African speak 5+ languages.

    People who look for ways to be superior are at best ignorant and at worst jealous over things that cannot be changed. African, your heritage is sitting back watching how your destroying this planet and your times is almost up. P.S. Get some education so that way I can debate your claims on a anthropological, archaeological, linguistic, genetic, etymological & historical level.

    • the time is just about right to heal the dark mother god/goddess earthly body….. thank you for this comment, i was about to do some similar work on “his” mind black/melanin power

  7. Is this a joke? If so, it’s not funny. If not, you’ve got a bit of research to do.

    I think the basic idea here is that early humans probably started out with light skin covered with dark hair (what chimps look like) and later developed dark skin when they lost all the body hair. Dark skin (melanin) evolved in equatorial regions, where sun exposure is high, to protect humans from UV radiation’s reduction of spermatogenesis and destruction of DNA and folic acid. The loss of melanin evolved when humans moved away from equatorial regions to higher latitudes, where the lack of sunlight exerted selective pressure on humans to develop lighter skin so that they’d get adequate levels of vitamin D from the limited sunlight. Females of all races have slightly lighter skin because vitamin D is so important for child development (children without enough vitamin D develop ricketts). To read more, check out this paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJS-45F4X4V-13&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8f238e32e70b70686c29b8fc1ca9dd00

    Now, where did you get this idea: “when some physical change to an organ takes place the matter for the change must come from the existing reservoir of matter”? No. How does an organ change? Well, for example, the skin changed from light to dark in sunny areas in the following way: the population had heritable variations in skin color, darker skin allowed for more reproduction or for higher survival of offspring (and lighter skin caused a lower offspring survival rate, due to lack of folic acid), offspring inherited the darker skin trait, and the process continued. Go read the Wikipedia page on “Natural Selection.”

    You say in your “About” page that you’re, “interested in evolution and the politics of species,” and that you’ve “thought about these problems more than somewhat.” You also say, referring to the profound and delicate absurdities of conspiracy theory, that, “You have to do a lot of reading.” I’d suggest you take your own advice, but spend your time reading about something more worthwhile than conspiracy theory. Speaking about evolution without first reading on it seems to have lead you to dangerous places. You’re shaming your age bracket, proving that an old dog can’t learn new tricks. You’re embarrassing this country. It’s a tragedy that we’re going to have to wait for your generation, and the offspring whose minds you’ve tainted and degraded, to die off before we can approach racial harmony.

    Please, please, please educate yourself and stop polluting your mind and the internet with this nonsense. I’m sick of being reduced to tears when pages like this show up in my Google searches.

  8. Dear ‘guest’.

    Thank you for taking the time and effort to respond.

    What you proffer is the usual ad hominem argument of your kind. You do at least attempt to offer some sort of rational refutation. As with your kind you hide behind anonymity merely identifying yourself as ‘guest.’ I would have done the same in your situation.

    If I shame my ‘country’ as you put it, you shame the whole human race. Alright, now that we’ve squared away let’s deal with the arguments.

    Quote:
    I think the idea that early humans started out with light skins covered with dark hair…and later developed dark skin and lost all their hair…
    Unquote.

    Interesting but it has nothing do with what I wrote or think.

    Your argument, unsupported by any description of a mechanism, is that Homo Sapiens began in the tropics of Africa with high melanin content in the skin because this somehow ‘screens out’ UV rays. Or, in other words, Black skin will not be burned by unlimited exposure to the sun. Then Black people migrated North where the strength of the sun is so low it won’t burn anybody Black or White. I can personally contradict your assertion on both accounts. You argue that over an undetermined period of time the Black person adapts to this situation turning milk white while growing a bridged nose, presumably because the high bridge makes breathing cold, thin Northern air so much easier than a broad flat one. Now, these changes are mere adapations but not evolution. Am I understanding you?

    Here’s another problem for you. ‘Europeans’ don’t come from Europe. They come from Central Asia. They ‘migrated’ to Europe during historical times, even recent historical times. In Central Asia they lived cheek by jowl with Mongolids. Now, Mongolids have a much higher melanin content than ‘Europeans.’ The steppes of Asia are both colder and hotter than Europe yet the same conditions produced different levels of Melanin. I’m sure you have a ready explanation for that.

    Now, ‘guest’ according to many, Homo Sapiens evolved from the Last Hominid Predecessor 150 thousand years ago. We know from experience in the US that 500 years isn’t long enough to even begin bleaching Africans. I expect, since you speak so confidently, that you can tell the world exactly how long it does take. When will all people in North America be White? C’mon fix a date.

    I also expect that you can explain how Black people turned both White and Yellow in Central Asia under the same conditions. Or even why Eskimos are dark while living under the lowest sun on earth.

    Back to Africa and gorillas. It seems to me that if as, as you say, high melanin is protective against a hot burning sun then a hairy coat such as gorillas wear is even better. One has to assume that the hominid predecessors sometime in the past had both a hairy coat and a tail. How do you say the hominid predecessors ‘lost’ their extremely beneficial hair and tail? How do you say gorillas lost their tail but retained their hair?

    And why did HS lose the maximum protection against the sun provided by a full coat of hair when chimps and gorillas under identical conditions didn’t? There’s an easy one for you.

    Wikipedia? My goodness, the very voice of God, truly. I’d believe anything they say ‘guest.’ Are you aware that many people say Wikipedia is completely unreliable?

    I’ll match reading lists against you any day.

    Answer the questions. I’m waiting.

  9. T genesis and creation of the first human beings (Homo Sapiens) fossil remains have been found and accurately dated at 3.5 million years, through the use of the Radio Potassium Argon method.   Drs Richard and Mary Leakey, world renowned anthropologists were the first Europeans to make such finds of Black African fossil remains around the Great Lakes in East Africa ( Times Magazine, March 14, 1994, p. 45, USA).   According to the Leakey’s, this ancient African human was a female, walking upright like modern humans, today (Dr. Mary Leakey, Serronghetti Plains, Tanzania, where fossil remains were found); Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop, March 14, 1994, p. 45, USA).   According to the Leakey’s, this ancient African human was a female, walking upright like modern humans, today (Dr. Mary Leakey, Serronghett Lawrence Hills books, 1991, USA; Dr. Charles m the African Eden, 1991, pp. 1-57, Kenti Inc. A, and John Jackson. Man, God and Civilization, pp. 16-28, Carol Publishing Group, 1990, N.Y., USA). . 16-28, Carol Publishing Group, 1990, N.Y., USA)

    Humankind born around the Great Lakes Region of Africa, almost on the equator, is necessarily pigmented and Black; the ‘Gloger Law’ calls for and humid climate (Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, p. 11).  A recently released report in The Journal Nature describes the discovery of three humanoid skulls, two adults and one child in the Herto Middle Awash area of Ethiopia, dating back to between 5.2 and 5.8 million years ago (University of California, Berkeley, March 20, 2002). Nature describes the discovery of three humanoid Awash area of Ethiopia, dating back to between 5.2 Berkeley, March 20, 2002)

    Black African Early Presence Around The Europe the Upper Paleolithic Period, Black Africoid people into Europe via the Straits of Gibraltar and the Isthmus of Suez.  Today, Palaeo, Physical and Forensic Anthropology, as well as Prehistoric Archaeology have definitively proven that the Black Africoids’ presence and culture was supreme and spread throughout the entire Earth, long before the arrival of Aryan-Whites (Europeans, today) and Mongoloid-Asians.   In fact, such Africoid cultura Siberia, passing through France, Austria, the Crimea Echoes of the Old Darkland-Themes From the African Eden, 1991, Kenti, Inc., USA, and Ghana Daily Graphic Newspaper, “Europe Founded By Few hundred Africans?” April 24th, 2001, No. 148197 Accra, Ghana.

    Also, geneticist, Dr. Luigi Cavelli Sforza of Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, states that the Caucasoid (Aryan-Whites) and Mongoloid (yellow race) did not come on the Earth until about 26,000 the products of the Black Africoids’ mutation during the last Ice Age (Dr. Luigi Cavelli Sforza, Times Newspaper, July 27th, 1993, article: “A Geneticist Maps Ancient Migration”). According to Britain’s Natural History Museum: Africa is the only primitive to modern humans—first modern Europeans and Asians do not show up before 40,000 years Before Present (B.P.), Times Magazine, March 14, 1994. March 14, 1994.

    Moreover, according to historian Marija Gimbutas there existed an ancient civilization of Africoid peoples in Ancient Europe which came directly from were characterized by a sedentary life, agriculture, a cult of mother goddess with many feminine divinities, a matriarchal, egalitarian, urbane and peaceful society.  It lasted from 6500 to 3500 B.C. Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe 7000-3500 B.C. Myths, Legends and Cult Images (Berkeley University of California Press, 1982, USA)

    society in every aspect, African.   Dr. Diop goes on to Eurasiatic Russian steppes of the Caucasus end of the period historians call the Greek Dark Age-the three or four hundred years following the Dorian invasions – the ancient Greek poet Hesiod (c“golden race.”   Hesiod writes: “All good things” were unbidden in boundless plenty.  In peaceful ease they kept their lands with good abundance, rich in flocks and dear to immortals” (Hesiod, Works and Days, quoted in, John Mansley Robinson, An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy (Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1968), pp. 12-12.   “The golden race were the black race and the golden age was the period before the arrival of the Whiteman” 22-23, Beacon Communications, 1992, San Diego CA., 92197, USA)

    America: The oldest civilization known in the Americas was the Olmec, and it was of Black Africoid origin and flourished over a 5000 years before the arrival of the red Indians.  In fact, at the America in the 15th century, descendants of the Black Olmecs were abounding throughout that region, particularly in Mexico.    In this regard, the testimony of Nicolas Leon proves instructive on how fact, he says that Black people were the Origina people of Mexico.  “The almost extinction of the original Negroes during the time of the Spanish ancient traditions induce us to believe that the Negroes were the first inhabitants of Mexico.”( Historia—General De Mexico, Mexico, 1919)

    Riva-Palacio, a Mexican scholar stresses this point“It is indisputable that in very ancient times the black – face.”   The Black Olmec Africoids were Civilization (Dr. Diop, Nations, Negres et Culture, p 1492 when Christopher Columbus was approaching a Black Moor from Mauritania name Don Pietro logged in his diary as their ships approached the shores of the Americas, seeing Black Africans on land, as well as some sailing in large canoes leaving the shores of the Americas, heading out to sea in the direction towards the African Continent (John Descendants of the Olmecs who were living in America at the time Columbus arrived were the Black Wasschitaw of Mississippi, Black Mojave of California and the Jamassee of Georgia.

    There is presently a law suit before the courts in the USA filed by a group of African Americans who claim government return millions of acres of land taken Civilization was known for its high order of Mathematics, Pyramids and Calendar.    Scientists than the modern day Gregorian Calendar in use (J Alexandre Braghine, The Shadow of Atlantis, E.P Dutton & Co., New York, 1940; Dr. Diop, Nations Negres et Culture, ibid. p. 116); Professor Michael D Sterling (1938), Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology—branch of Smithsonian Institution statuette of a Negro that is at least “20,000 years Central America possess typical Negro features and certain prehistoric monuments there undoubtedly represent Negroes” (Colonel A. Braghine, The Shadow of Atlantis, pp. 40-42, New York, USA. 1940)

    A fitting statement was made by Professor Weiner of Harvard University (“Africa and the Discovery of America”, Vol. III, Philadelphia 1920-1922).   He shows how the culture of Americas so closely resembles African culture that one must conclude spiritual civilization, down to the remotest details in the Sudan and in Mexico and elsewhere in America leads to the assumption that other cultura elements, identical in both continents and frequently bearing the same name are of African origin.”   And lastly, R.A. Jairazbhdy, Ancient Egyptians and Chinese in America, has pointed out“The black began his career in America not as slave but as master” (Kemit, Kush, What They Never Told The Shang Dynasty (Chiang or Chi’ang) 1766-1100 B.C.E., was one of the oldest dynasties in China before the Mongoloid Asians came to power, and it was an all Black Africoid Dynasty (Runoko Rashidi Essay by James Brunson, China, p. 128, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick USA).   Also, today, in Southwest China are descendants of Ancient Black Africoids known as ones’.   They are also called the ‘Yi’ or ‘Nuoso(Toronto’s Globe and Mail Newspaper, 1998, Joseph S. Rock, ‘ China, Volume I)

    According to Dr. Diop, 15,000 years Before Present interbreeding between the Black Africoid and(prototype of yellow race).   This contact was made Magdalenian Age.  The epicanthic eyelid developed as a result of this group migrating to Outer Mongolia where the high wind factor caused the eyelid fold (Dr. Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, p 16).  India: The first Indians were Black Africoid people.   The earliest Indian settlement dates from geographical area of existence was in today’s Baluchistan and in lower Sind, to the north and west of present day Karachi.   These cities were known as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappen.   The “elaborate systems was like a minute version of Manhattan Presence in Early Asia, p 91, Transction Publishers New Brunswick (USA), 1985)

    Between 3000 to 2500 B.C.E., barbaric Aryan-Whites coming from the steppes of the Caucasus Mountains destroyed this civilization, and interbreed with their Black female captives Modern Archaeologists have uncovered evidence and children were beaten to death.   Historian H.G Rawlinson pointed out: “Mohenjo-Daro inhabitants were put to the sword by the barbarian Aryan Whites coming from the Caucasus Mountains.”

    Also, author E. Hawkride, Indian Gods and Kings on page 10, tells of the savage barbarism inflicted on Caucasus (Paul Lawrence Guthrie, Making of The Whiteman, page 11, Beacon Communications, San people living in India, today.   This is the larges world, including Africa.   Forty five million of these Blacks fall under the Indian Government’s owners of India. Japan: The first Japanese were Black.  There is a very evident Negro strain in a certain element of the Japanese population particularly those of south Japan.   H. Imbert, who is out that: “The Negro element in Japan is inhabitants with dark and often blackish skin, frizzy the Far East.   Skulls of these Negritoes have been found in the island of Formosa (Taiwan China today) and traces of this Negroid element in the island of Liu-kiu to the south of Japan.   The oldes known inhabitants of Japan are the Ainus

    According to Churchward in his book ‘ Signs and same original race and type as the Australian rituals of Ancient Egypt.   Their skulls are of the and Nilotic Negroes.  According to a Japanese Must Have A Bit Of Black Blood (Dr. Diop, African civilizations and its people throughout Europe (6000 hordes of barbarian Aryan-White tribes coming from the Caucasus Mountains (4000 B.C.E. going) captives, creating other mixed racial groups along European Culture, Philosophy, Religion, Medicine & Science

    Some people are hostile to things they have rejected and do not see that this was an all African world before the advent of the European.  The Runoko – The indigenous peoples were African were invading their own lands.  The European has divided us up in groups – African-Asian-Indian and that woman said he invented race to further is insane culture and now that we have adopted his then he with draws form the race issue making it a non-issue. I still believe that the original Hebrews were Africans and sons and daughters of the Egyptians.  I believe that the model of all societies sprung form the migrating African.  I believe we al need a intermediary to the almighty and so far my wits tell me it is Yahshua or God whether that was his given name or not, whether he lived 2000 years ago or 10,000 years ago and was an Egyptian Pharaoh I don’t care – I know that the reality of Messiah is true.  We see through a glass darkly – but one day we will see all face to face. Andrew Jackson…. I have more info on melanin theory.. stay updated

  10. Andrew: My critique is based on the notion that Africa generated the first Homo Sapiens. As the consensus is that HS originated in Africa I extrapolated the consequences on the basis of the fact of evolution as an ongoing process.

    I don’t contest that Africa may be the home of the first Homo Sapiens. My contention is that evolution has produced HSII and HSIII both evolutionary advances over HSI.

    That’s it, Andrew, enough of this.

    If you want to know what Africans are capable of look to your shining example Barack Obama. Here’s a guy who has already produced the biggest annual deficit in WORLD HISTORY, BAR NONE. One year in office and he’s set a world’s record for economic incompetence. On top of that he’s promoting even bigger spending programs.

    Get straight, man.

    Obama’s going to out Mugabe, Mugabe.

    I have to suffer through this African idiocy because some stupid White morons fell in love with Black skin. Dig it, Andrew, here’s your chance for Africans to shine. Shit or get off the pot.

    • I know this comment was made in 2009.. But it’s 2013 now and Barak was still re-elected by a white Majority. The thing that you will not understand is that melanated people know for a fact within themselves that the melanin has more power than just skin color. They feel it, but the current system prevents them from understanding it.

      • Hello. The supernatural may seem to exist but unfortunately materialism, the elements, rule. Evolution. Once again, if Homo Sapiens first evolved in Africa and were dark that makes the Africans the earliest model of Homo Sapiens. Evolution did not stop in Africa, therefore later models have evolved and the latest model must have greater powers than the earlier models. It’s not me. It’s the way things are.

        As for feeling some ineffable power, perhaps earlier models do feel some mystical power that elevates them over the later models but the later models seem to have science, that is greater knowledge, on their side. But then, numbers may rule all.

        Imagine what Apes, pre-humans, must feel when they see an African coming after them with a gun. Apes are more powerful than humans, able to fight leopards bare handed and win. That is power but still a very early model. The Ape thinks, take that gun away from that African and I can kick his ass. Take the gun away, there’s the catch. Superior science makes the African superior to the Ape.

        By the way, a White majority did not re-elect Barry. A White majority voted for the other guy no matter how reluctantly. Barry was elected by a White minority and a melanated majority. Both the candidates should have been sent back home.

  11. Prindle,

    I disagree with the unproven assumption that whites were ever black. I beleive different races have always existed, and that there was no such thing as the ‘original homonid(s)’.

    I concur with your view, however, that melanin is a substance which inhibits intelligence.

  12. I agree with your skepticism on speculative assumptions. No one can prove anything about skin tones at any time in evolution. The Bushman is described as ‘yellowish’ in tone and as far as I’m concerned he is a predecessor homonid to the Negro.

    I don’t understand which direction you’re going in saying that ‘melanin is a substance which inhibits intelligence.’

  13. To the Man who wrote this article

    I hope you know that when Homo erectus left Africa. They actually de-evolved into other species like the Peking man of Asia

    and do you know what Their cranial capacity was far smaller then there homo erectus counterparts. The very fact that modern humans who surpass all these humans pre homo sapiens evolved in Africa

    Lets you know only Africa has the right terrain and environment to evolve and sustain human population of high advancements.

    No place outside of Africa has the right items to allow such events.

    Perfect example of that is not only human life can only evolve in Africa. But how flora and fauna migrated between Eurasia and Africa via a Levantine land bridge

    Study bro,study with no pre thoughts and notions and you will find truth

  14. I wasn’t responding to your article, I just thought they was interesting videos, and maybe to you. This is not a debate against you or anyone else. I just like learning about new things and having opinions about every out come of evolution or life itself. Everything is collectively theories, and its helping us grow and learn more things about our selfs..

  15. Are you kidding? First, if blacks and caucasians were different species they would not be able to produce fertile offspring, thats the definition of a species.

    Second, the fact that you try to rationalize diminishment in brain capacity in combination to melanin is crazy. The whole basis that you have to lose capacity of one function to gain another is flawed. Organs and functions change in response to your environment, and those functions are normally just suppressed not eliminated (why we still have tail bones).

    This whole article sounds like it was constructed by someone trying to sound intelligent, no where near the level of expertise in micro-biology to construct credible hypothesis. I mean, you dont even know the definition of a species, thats high-school biology for heaven sakes

    Phd Candidate, Immunology

  16. Mike: How are you? In answer to your question, no, I am not kidding. If they’re teaching you in grad school that the definition of a species is the inability to reproduce I’m sorry to hear that they are so far behind the times.

    The ability to produce offspring is a matter of the X and y chromosomes not necessarily speciation. If one partner has 23 pairs of chromosomes and the other 24 the chromosomes won’t line up and no reproduction is possible. If a lizard had 23 chromosomes as humans do then a lizard-human match would be possible if improbable but that wouldn’t make the two the same species.

    As I understand artificial matings of humans and chimps have been created in the lab but then destroyed. Still different species.

    As you are a PhD candidate you must realize that evolution is still continuing, that is say speciation is a continuing affair. You must also know that there are or have been four ‘species’ of lion although one is now extinct. That means it is possible for a human species or ‘race’ if you prefer to become extinct, indeed, all the Hominid Predecessors are extinct. I dare say that any of the species of lion can interbreed but they apparently recognize special differences and don’t.

    Organs and functions do not change in response to our environment although they might atrophy if unused. If we no longer have tails they are eliminated and not suppressed, if a stump of sorts remains that indicates the tail was eliminated.

    I suspect, Mike, that your opinions are based on ideology rather than science. While this may be bad science it’s good politics. Stick with it if you want to get your PhD. Remember what happened to Bruce Lahn. Believe me that your academic success will be based on ideology and not science.

    • I would love to see your scientific evidence. Research links and papers done by geneticists and the like. I say this, because you’ve only given ‘notions’ and ‘theories’ but haven’t even given any names or names of major organizations to back your propositions. You should add them to your next reply! I’d LOVE to read it all!

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